Study of eye drops dispensing and dose variability by using plastic dropper tips.

  1. The application of eye drops from flexible dropper bottles fitted with different types of dropper tips is associated with the high variability of eye drop weights. The aim of this report was to investigate the simultaneous effect of three factors influencing the mean weight of drops dispensing from two plastic dropper tips.
  2. Using a designed experiment (Box-Behnken), the effect of the concentration of benzalkonium chloride solutions (BAC) in the range of 0-0.02%, the dispensing angle from 90 degrees to 30 degrees from horizontal, and the residual volume of liquid in the dropper bottle from 4 to 10 mL on the mean drop weights were examined.
  3. The significant effect of the increase in BAC concentration resulted in a linear decrease in drop weights for both of the dropper tips investigated. The significant effect of the dispensing angle was influenced by the dropper tip design. For the dropper tip A, the effect of the dropper tip tilt was described by the quadratic equation with a minimum, which corresponded to the dispensing angle equal to that of 48 degrees from horizontal.
  4. Below this angle, the increase in drop weights occurred due to the drop formation from the wetted external surface of the tip orifice. The linear decrease in drop weights in response to the decrease in dispensing angle was detected for the dropper tip B. The regression equations and the contour line plots obtained allowed the drop weights to be estimated for the actual combinations of both the BAC concentration and the dispensing angle.
  5. The effect of the residual volume was found to be non-significant. Based on the formula of Tate’s law, the direct proportion between surface tension of a solution and the radius of the effective perimeter of a dropper tip can be used to estimate the theoretical maximal weight of drops at the dispensing angle of 90 degrees .
  6. Using the stalagmometric values of surface tension of the BAC solutions, the maximal drop weights were estimated for both of the dropper tips investigated. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimentally measured drop weights enabled the dropper tips behavior to be discussed by using Harkins and Brown correction factor F.
  7. The F-value of 0.74 noted for the dropper tip A differed from that of stalagmometer F-value (0.61) indicating a deviation from the simple drop formation process in answer to more complicated design of the dropper tip A. On the other hand, the F-value of 0.6 observed for the dropper tip B demonstrated the better consistency with stalagmometry.
  8. As a result, the dropper tip B with the linear decrease of drop weights in response to the increased concentration of BAC and the decreased dispensing angle without the adverse external drop Plastic bottles  formation could be recommended in real drop dispensing.

Tableting and stability evaluation of enteric-coated omeprazole pellets.

  • In this study, fluidized-bed manufactured enteric-coated omeprazole pellets were compressed into tablets. The stability of the pellets and those of compressed tablets were evaluated for remaining omeprazole and for degradation products under an accelerated stability protocol. The data were analyzed using the artificial neural network (ANN) and analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  • It was found that enteric-coated omeprazole pellets could be compressed into quickly disintegrating tablets using microcrystalline cellulose granules as the pressure absorbing matrix.
  • The ANN, using the multilayer perceptron model, predicted that there was a positive correlation between tablet crushing strength and microcrystalline cellulose concentration.
  • Microcrystalline cellulose matrix showed a strong plastic deformation and all the pellets inside the tablet maintained their integrity with no significant change in their surface properties.
  • Omeprazole degradation in acid medium was mainly dependent on microcrystalline cellulose concentration. A 90-day accelerated stability test in brown glass bottles with a desiccant showed that all prototype formulations would result in an acceptable stability profile for both remaining omeprazole, and also for the increase of impurity concentrations.
Brown Bottle 1000ml
Brown Bottle 1000ml

Studies on the light transmittance of coloured plastic bottles for liquid pharmaceutical preparations. Part 43: Contributions to problems concerning the use of plastic containers for liquid pharmaceutical preparations (author’s transl)

  1. To assess the light transmittance of coloured plastic bottles, studies were made using the photographic paper method and a spectrophotometric technique. According to its sensitivity between 400 and 500 nm, the photographic paper gives information as to this wavelength range, directional radiation and scattered light being covered.
  2. In contrast to this, the spectrophotometric method yields discriminating information on the wavelength range between 200 and 800 nm. Apart from a minimum transmittance up to 500 nm, the coloured plastic bottles should have a high transmittance greater than 700 to ensure high transparency.
  3. Of the dyes tested, Pigment Orange and Chromeophthal Brown give the plastic bottles light-protecting properties 4 years’ storage, both of these dyes show changes in the light-protecting properties by which the light transmittance of plastic bottles coloured with them is increased. When these dyes are used in adequate concentrations, this increase in light transmittance will remain within allowable limits, provided direct solar radiation be avoided.

Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass BottlesPlastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

  • To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C).
  • The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7.
  • Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media.
  • No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested.

Disposable Meat Sample Plastic tubes with caps (5 ml) (1000/pk)

MST5-1000 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. BROWN

SCO-BR CORNING 500/pk

Disposable Meat Sample Plastic tubes with caps (5 ml) (250/pk)

MST5-250 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk

ERLENMEYER FLASK, 50 ML, PP

4985P-50 CORNING 6/pk

ERLENMEYER FLASK, 50 ML, PMP

4990P-50 CORNING 6/pk

0.2mL PCR tubes, individual, with flat caps, 1000/pk

P3030 MTC Bio 1000/pack

0.2mL PCR tubes, individual, with domed caps, 1000/pk

P3040 MTC Bio 1000/pack

PLASTIC CLAMP, 125 ML

480149 CORNING 1/pk

PLASTIC CLAMP, 250 ML

480150 CORNING 1/pk

PLASTIC CLAMP, 500 ML

480151 CORNING 1/pk

Bottles 2L Nalgene with Quick Connect

BTLN52 Next Advance 2pack

50 ml Stripette individually paper/plastic wrapped serological pipettes sterile

GR238023 Genorise Scientific Case of 100

Tubes (empty) pack of 1000 with caps and sealing ring

D1031-T20 Benchmark Scientific 1 PC

PBS Tablets (1000 ml)

2129-10 Biovision

PBS Tablets (1000 ml)

2129-100 Biovision

Plastic Columns

C-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

0.2 ml Individual PCR Tubes with attached Flat Caps

GP101 GenDepot 1,000 tubes

0.2 ml Individual PCR Tubes with attached Domed Caps

GP102 GenDepot 1,000 tubes

0.5 ml Individual PCR Tubes with attached Flat Caps

GP103 GenDepot 1,000 tubes

0.5 ml Individual PCR Tubes with attached Domed Caps

GP104 GenDepot 1,000 tubes

TruStrip Sample Transfer Strips, 50-ul, 50/Pk (with sample tracking dye)

STSD-50-50 Alpha Diagnostics 1 Pk

Tubes (empty) pack of 50 with caps and sealing ring

D1031-T21 Benchmark Scientific 1 PC

BROWN LOOPED SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. FITS 0.5ML, 1.5ML AND 2.0ML TUBES

SCO-LP-BR CORNING 500/pk

0.2 ml 8-Strip PCR Tube with Individually Attached Caps

GP900 GenDepot 120 strips

ELISA PLATE READER : MICRO READ 1000

1000 Global Diagnostics B 1 unit

Plastic XL Columns

CXL-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

Plastic XXL Columns

CXXL-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

Plastic Columns Frits

FC-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

Sodium Chloride tablets 1000 ml

09-9104-10 Medicago 1000 ml

Sodium Chloride tablets 1000 ml

09-9104-100 Medicago 1000 ml

D(+)Glucose 20 % 1000 ml

12-9165-5 Medicago 1000 ml

pepsine cleaning solution 1000 ml

B232 Consort ea

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

DLR-CAPS-Hu-48T DL Develop 48T

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

DLR-CAPS-Hu-96T DL Develop 96T

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

RDR-CAPS-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

RDR-CAPS-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

RD-CAPS-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests

Human Calcyphosine (CAPS) ELISA Kit

RD-CAPS-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests

Heat Extractor with Plastic Knob

IMS006 ScyTek Laboratories 1 ea.

Antigen Retrieval Solution, Citrate pH 6.0 (50 ml, 100X)

ARS6-50 Alpha Diagnostics 5 L

Antigen Retrieval Solution, EDTA pH 8.0 (50 ml, 100X)

ARS8-50 Alpha Diagnostics 5 L

AlbuVoid Buffer Kit - 1000

AVBK-1000 Biotech Support Group 1000 mL

HemoVoid Buffer Kit - 1000

HVBK-1000 Biotech Support Group 1000 mL

UPCK Buffer Kit - 1000

UPBK-1000 Biotech Support Group 1000 mL

AXYPREP MAG DYECLEAN KIT- 50 ML - 5000 PREPS

MAG-DYECL-50 CORNING 1/pk

RESERVOIR, POLYPROPYLENE, 50 ML, V-BOTTOM, NONSTERILE, BULK

RES-V-50 CORNING 100/pk

Plastic XL Columns Frits

FCXL-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

Plastic XXL Columns Frits

FCXXL-50 ABTBeads 50/pk

TC-G 1000

B7730-50 ApexBio 50 mg

Antigen Retrieval Solution, Tris-EDTA pH 9.0 (50 ml, 100X)

ARS9-50 Alpha Diagnostics 5 L

50 ml Reagent Reservoir

GR238016 Genorise Scientific Pack of 200

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Conical, 210mm, 50/Bag

MGR113 Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Round, 205mm, 50/Bag

MGR114 Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Conical, 70mm, 50/Bag

MGR115 Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

PBS-Tween® Tablets (1000 ml)

2130-10 Biovision

PBS-Tween® Tablets (1000 ml)

2130-100 Biovision

EDTA buffer pH 8.0, 1000 ml

12-9160-5 Medicago 1000 ml

Potassium chloride 1 M, 1000 ml

12-9175-10 Medicago 1000 ml

Potassium chloride 3 M, 1000 ml

12-9176-5 Medicago 1000 ml

Sodium chloride 3 M, 1000 ml

12-9190-5 Medicago 1000 ml

Sodium chloride 5 M, 1000 ml

12-9191-5 Medicago 1000 ml

Tris buffer pH 7.4, 1000 ml

12-9198-10 Medicago 1000 ml

Tris buffer pH 8.0, 1000 ml

12-9199-10 Medicago 1000 ml

Tris buffer pH 8.3, 1000 ml

12-9200-10 Medicago 1000 ml

AXYPREP FRAGMENTSELECT-I KIT- 50 ML - 380 PREPS

MAG-FRAG-I-50 CORNING 1/pk

RESERVOIR, POLYPROPYLENE, 50 ML, V-BOTTOM, STERILE, BULK

RES-V-50-S CORNING 5/pk

MINI BIOREACTOR, 50 ML CENTRIFUGE TUBE WITH VENT CAP, STERILE

431720 CORNING 25/pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS

SCO-R CORNING 500/pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS

SCO-W CORNING 500/pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS

SCO-Y CORNING 500/pk

Phosphate Buffered Saline with Tween 20 (PBS-T) pH 7.4, 1000 ml

09-9410-100 Medicago 1000 ml

Phosphate Buffered Saline with Tween 20 (PBS-T) pH 7.4, 1000 ml

09-9410-30 Medicago 1000 ml

VOL FLASK,50ML,PLASTIC,CLASS A,PFA, WITH GL-18 SCREW CAP,1/6

5650P-50 CORNING 1/pk

AXYPREP MAG PCR NORMALIZER KIT- 50 ML - 384 PREPS

MAG-PCR-NM-50 CORNING 1/pk

RESERVOIR, POLYPROPYLENE, 50 ML, V-BOTTOM, STERILE, INDIVIDUALLY PACKAGED

RES-V-50-SI CORNING 100/pk

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Conical, 210mm, 50/Bag, Sterile

MGR113-S Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Round, 205mm, 50/Bag, Sterile

MGR114-S Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

Disposable Plastic Pestles, Conical, 70mm, 50/Bag, Sterile

MGR115-S Bio Basic 1PK, 50UNIT

Chloramphenicol Solution (50 mg/ml)

C090-10ML TOKU-E 10 mL

Chloramphenicol Solution (50 mg/ml)

C090-10x10ML TOKU-E 10 x 10 mL

PBS solution pH 7.4, 1000 ml/bottle

10-9402-10 Medicago 1000 ml/bottle

Tris-Glycine buffer pH 8.3, 1000 ml

12-9122-10 Medicago 1000 ml

Sodium hydroxide powder 5 M, 1000 ml

12-9183-5 Medicago 1000 ml

Sodium acetate buffer pH 7.0, 1000 ml

12-9188-5 Medicago 1000 ml

1000 ml leak-resistant HDPE bottle, colorless

GR238010 Genorise Scientific Pack of 6

PCR-Tubes 0,2 ml in strips; 8 x 250 tubes with domed caps

A23232 GeneOn 8x250 tubes&caps

Meat sample spatulas (individually wrapped) 1000/pk

MSSW-1000 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. BLUE

SCO-B CORNING 500/pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. CLEAR

SCO-C CORNING 500/pk

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. GREEN

SCO-G CORNING 500/pk

AXYPREP MAG PCR CLEAN UP KIT- 50 ML - 1110 PREPS

MAG-PCR-CL-50 CORNING 1/pk

Dressed Gold NeutrAvidin at 50 O.D./mL, 1 mL

DNTAL-B001 BioAssayWorks 1 mL

Dressed Gold NeutrAvidin at 50 O.D./mL, 9 mL

DNTAL-B009 BioAssayWorks 9 mL

Dressed Gold Streptavidin at 50 O.D./mL, 1 mL

DSTAL-B001 BioAssayWorks 1 mL

Dressed Gold Streptavidin at 50 O.D./mL, 9 mL

DSTAL-B009 BioAssayWorks 9 mL

50 ML AMPHOTERICIN B, LIQUID 250 µG/ML SOLUBILIZED

30-003-CF CORNING 50 mL/pk

10 ML GENTAMICIN SULFATE, LIQUID 50 MG/ML SOLUTION

30-005-CR CORNING 10 mL/pk

50 ML KANAMYCIN SULFATE, LIQUID, 5,000 µG/ML SOLUTION

30-006-CF CORNING 50 mL/pk

ML-297

C5045-50 ApexBio 50 mg

ML-090

C4746-50 ApexBio 50 mg
Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

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