Think you know how to protect yourself and your family from the sun’s damaging rays? Think again. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, probably making up more than half of all diagnosed cases of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). The good news is that about 90 percent of all skin cancers could be prevented by properly protecting yourself. Get your facts straight so you—and your family—can safely enjoy the great outdoors all year long.
4 big mistakes with big consequences:
Relying on sunscreen (or sunblock, or suntan lotion) for protection:
Too many people think that using sunscreen will allow them to remain in the sun all day without burning. Experts agree: Using sunscreen isn’t enough. In addition to using the right sunscreen properly, shade yourself with a beach umbrella and wear closely woven brimmed hats and clothing (preferably made from fabric treated for UV protection). Don’t forget your eyes! Wearing wrap-around sunglasses with UV-screening lenses will help protect your precious peepers.
During the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the UV light is strongest, try to avoid the sun altogether. Not watching the clock? The “shadow rule” can help: avoid the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are—that’s when the sun is strongest.
Using the wrong sunscreen:
According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, there are six main skin types, from very fair to black, and each has differing risks of enduring sun damage that can cause cancer.
Different skin types need sunscreens with varying SPF (sunburn protection factor) ratings. The American Academy of Dermatology advises, in general, choosing a sunscreen with at least SPF 15. Very fair people—who burn easily and often suffer bad sunburns—should choose higher SPF numbers such as 30 or 45. That doesn’t mean, as some people think, that they can use SPF 45 and stay in the sun 45 times longer than without sunscreen coverage. It’s estimated that SPF 45 provides only 3 to 4 percent more protection than a SPF 15.
According to Dr. Taylor, the founder of brownskin.net, an online dermatological resource for women of Asian, African, Latin, Native American, Pacific and other native descents, skin pigment, or melanin, in the “average” African American gives protection equivalent to SPF 13, but that brown- and black-skinned people should still use sunscreen with as least SPF 15. Think of it this way: although it’s not exactly additive, (SPF) 13 plus 15 equals 28, or close to (SPF) 30.
Using too little sunscreen:
If you’re lucky, you might find 8-ounce bottles of sunscreen, but many of the products sold today contain only 4 ounces or less. For adequate coverage, an “average”-sized adult needs to use one ounce of sunscreen (about the amount that fills your palm or a shot glass) each time they apply it. Larger people will need more. Sunscreen needs to be reapplied every two hours. If you’re swimming or playing a sweaty sport, you need to apply it immediately after drying off.